Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920. The men's tournament was introduced at the 1920 Summer Olympics and was transferred permanently to the Winter Olympic Games program in 1924, in France. The women's tournament was first held at the 1998 Winter Olympics. The Olympic Games were originally intended for amateur athletes until 1988, and the National Hockey League (NHL) did not allow its players to compete until 1998. From 1924 to 1988, the tournament started with a round-robin series of games and ended with the medal round. Medals were awarded based on points accumulated during that round. The games of the tournament follow the rules of the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), which differ slightly from the rules used in the NHL. The tournament follows the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) rules on performance enhancing drugs and the IIHF maintains a Registered Testing Pool, a list of top players who are subjected to random in-competition and out-of-competition drug tests. Several players have tested positive for banned substances since the 1972 Winter Olympics.
In the men's tournament, Canada was the most successful team of the first three decades, winning six of seven gold medals. Czechoslovakia, Sweden and the United States were also competitive during this period and won multiple medals. Between 1920 and 1968, the Olympic hockey tournament was also counted as the Ice Hockey World Championship for that year. The Soviet Union first participated in 1956 and overtook Canada as the dominant international team, winning seven of the nine tournaments in which they participated. The United States won gold medals in 1960 and in 1980, which included their "Miracle on Ice" upset of the Soviet Union. Canada went 50 years without a gold medal, before winning one in 2002, and following it with back-to-back wins in 2010 and 2014. Other nations to win gold include Great Britain in 1936, the Unified Team in 1992, Sweden in 1994 and 2006 and the Czech Republic in 1998. Other medal-winning nations include Switzerland, Germany, Finland and Russia.
In 1986, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted to allow all athletes to compete in Olympic Games starting in 1988. The NHL was initially reluctant to allow its players to compete because the Olympics are held in the middle of the NHL season, and the league would have to halt play if many of its players participated. However, NHL players were allowed to compete starting in 1998. The format of the tournament was adjusted to accommodate the NHL schedule; a preliminary round was played without NHL players or the top six teams—Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States—followed by a final round which included them. The tournament format was changed again in 2006; every team played five preliminary games with the full use of NHL players.
In July 1992, the IOC voted to approve women's hockey as an Olympic event; it was first held at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. The Nagano Organizing Committee was hesitant to include the event because of the additional costs of staging the tournament, but an agreement was reached that limited the field to six teams, and ensured that no additional facilities would be built. The Canadian and American teams have dominated the event, typically losing only to each other. The United States won the first tournament in 1998, while Canada won in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014.
- 1 Inception as an Olympic sport
- 2 Events
- 3 Rules
- 4 Medal winners
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Inception as an Olympic sport
The first Olympic ice hockey tournament took place at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. At the time, organised international ice hockey was still relatively new. The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), the sport's governing body, was created on May 15, 1908, under the name Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace. It was proposed to hold an ice hockey tournament at Prince's Skating Club in October 1908 as part of the winter sports program of that year's Olympics in London. A figure skating event was held at Prince's, but the hockey competition did not materialize.
At the 1914 Olympic Congress in Paris, ice hockey was added to the list of optional sports that Olympics organisers could include. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned for the 1916 Olympic Games in Berlin, which were cancelled due to the outbreak of World War I. The concept of this week eventually gave rise to the first Winter Olympic Games. The central venue was to have been the Deutsches Stadion.
The decision to include ice hockey for the 1920 Summer Olympics was made in January, three months before the start of the Games. Several occurrences led to the sport's inclusion in the programme. Five European nations had committed to participating in the tournament and the managers of Antwerp's Palais de Glace stadium refused to allow the building to be used for figure skating unless ice hockey was included. The IIHF considers the 1920 tournament to be the first Ice Hockey World Championship. From then on, the two events occurred concurrently, and every Olympic tournament until 1968 is counted as the World Championship. The Olympic Games were originally intended for amateur athletes, so the players of the National Hockey League (NHL) and other professional leagues were not allowed to play.
The first Winter Olympic Games were held in 1924 in Chamonix, France. Chapter 1, article 6, of the 2007 edition of the Olympic Charter defines winter sports as "sports which are practised on snow or ice". Ice hockey and figure skating were permanently integrated in the Winter Olympics programme. The IOC made the Winter Games a permanent fixture and they were held the same year as the Summer Games until 1992. Following that, further Winter Games have been held on the third year of each Olympiad.
1920 Summer Olympics
The men's tournament held at the 1920 Summer Olympics was organised by a committee that included future IIHF president Paul Loicq. The tournament used the Bergvall System, in which three rounds were played. The first round was an elimination tournament that determined the gold medal winner. The second round consisted of the teams that were defeated by the gold medal winner; the winner of that round was awarded the silver medal. The final round was played between teams that had lost to the gold or silver medal winners; the winner of that round received the bronze medal.
The tournament was played from April 23 to April 29 and seven teams participated: Canada, Czechoslovakia, the United States, Switzerland, Sweden, France and Belgium. Canada chose to send the Allan Cup-winning Winnipeg Falcons. The Americans began a tournament to determine their representative team but abandoned it, deciding instead to send an all-star team that included four Canadian-born players. The Swedish team consisted of mostly bandy players, many of whom had only started playing hockey in preparation for the tournament. Canada won all three of the team's games in the first round and won the gold medal, defeating Sweden in the final and outscoring opponents 27–1. In the two subsequent rounds, the United States and Czechoslovakia won the silver and bronze medals respectively. The Bergvall System was criticised, especially in Sweden, because the Swedish team had to play six games (winning three) while the bronze medal winning Czech team only had to play three (winning one). Erik Bergvall, the creator of the system, stated that it was used incorrectly and that a tournament of all of the losing teams from the first round should have been played for the silver medal. Because of these criticisms, the Bergvall System was not used again for ice hockey.
In 1924, the tournament was played in a round-robin format, consisting of a preliminary round and a medal round. The medals were awarded based on win–loss records during the medal round. This format was used until 1988, although the number of teams and games played varied slightly. The Toronto Granites, representing Canada, became one of the dominant hockey teams in Olympic history, outscoring opponents 110–3, led by Harry Watson, who scored 36 goals. The United States won silver and Great Britain won bronze. Watson's 36 goals remains the tournament record for career goals. He also set the record for career points with 36 (assists were not counted at the time), which stood until 2010.
Eleven teams participated in the 1928 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, Switzerland. The Canadian team was given a bye to the medal round and won all of its games by a combined score of 38–0. The Swedish and Swiss teams won their first medals—silver and bronze respectively—and a German team participated for the first time, finishing ninth. At the 1932 Winter Olympics, Canada won gold in a tournament that consisted of four teams that played each other twice. Germany won bronze, the nation's first medal in the sport.
Two days before the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Canadian officials protested that two players on the British team—James Foster and Alex Archer—had played in Canada but transferred without permission to play for clubs in the English National League. The IIHF agreed with Canada, but Great Britain threatened to withdraw the team if the two were barred from competing. To avoid a conflict, Canada withdrew the protest shortly before the Games began. The tournament consisted of four groups and fifteen teams. Great Britain became the first non-Canadian team to win gold; Canada won silver and the United States bronze. World War II forced the cancellation of the 1940 and 1944 Winter Olympics.
During the run-up to the 1948 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, Switzerland, a conflict broke out between two American ice hockey bodies, the American Hockey Association (AHA) and the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU). The AAU, which had run amateur hockey in the United States since 1930, was expelled by the IIHF in 1947 when it refused to support a team composed of players from the AHA. The AAU stated that the AHA players were "openly paid salaries"; at the time, the Olympics were strictly for amateur players. The Swiss Olympic Organizing Committee (SOOC) had accepted the AHA's application, but Avery Brundage of the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) threatened to withdraw the entire American team if the AHA participated in the Olympics. The IIHF countered by threatening to withdraw hockey from the Games if the AHA were banned. The IOC suggested that both American teams be banned but the SOOC rejected this proposal. The IOC decided to switch hockey to an unofficial event but relented when a compromise was reached. The AHA team was allowed to compete but would not be considered an official participant or allowed to win a medal. The AHA team finished fourth in the standings. Both Czechoslovakia and Canada won seven games and tied when they played each other. The gold medal winner was determined by goal difference: Canada won the gold because it had an average of 13.8 goals per game compared to Czechoslovakia's average of 4.3. Czechoslovakia's team was quickly improving; it won the 1947 and 1949 World Championships.
At the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, Norway, the gold medal was won by Canada's team for the second consecutive Games. It would be the last time that a Canadian team would win a gold medal in hockey for 50 years. The United States won silver and Sweden won bronze. A team from Finland competed for the first time.
The Soviet Union competed in its first World Championship in 1954, defeating Canada and winning the gold medal. At the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, the Soviet team went undefeated and won its first gold medal. Canada's team lost to the Soviets and the United States in the medal round, winning the bronze. The 1960 Winter Olympics, in Squaw Valley, United States, saw the first, and to date only, team from Canada, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Sweden were the top four teams heading into the Games, but were all defeated by the American team, which won all seven games en route to its first Olympic gold medal. Canada won the silver medal and the Soviet Union won the bronze.
At the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria, the Soviet team won all seven of its games, earning the gold medal. Canada finished the tournament with five wins and two losses, putting the team in a three-way tie for second place with Sweden and Czechoslovakia. Before 1964, the tie-breaking procedure was based on goal difference in games against teams in the medal round; under that system, Canada would have placed third ahead of the Czechoslovakian team. During the tournament the procedure was changed to take all games into consideration, which meant that the Canadians finished fourth. At the time, the Olympics counted as the World Championships; under their (unchanged) rules, Canada should have received bronze for the World Championships.
Soviet domination continued at the 1968 Winter Olympics held in Grenoble, France, as the team won its third gold medal. Czechoslovakia and Canada won the silver and bronze medals. It was the last time that the Olympics were counted as the World Championships. In 1970, Canada withdrew from international ice hockey competition following a dispute over the use of professional players, and the team did not participate in the 1972 or 1976 Winter Olympics. Led by goaltender Vladislav Tretiak and forwards Valeri Kharlamov, Alexander Yakushev, Vladimir Petrov and Boris Mikhailov, the Soviet team won gold at both the 1972 Games in Sapporo, Japan and 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria. In 1971, the United States finished last at the World Championships and was relegated to Pool B. The team qualified for the 1972 Olympics and won silver, making it the first Pool B team to win an Olympic medal. Czechoslovakia won the bronze medal in 1972. In 1976, Czechoslovakia won the silver and West Germany won bronze. Along with Canada, the Swedish team did not participate in the 1976 tournament in protest at their inability to use professional players.
1980: The "Miracle on Ice"
- Main article: Miracle on Ice
The Winter Olympics returned to Lake Placid, New York in 1980. Twelve teams participated in the tournament, including Canada for the first time since 1968. The Soviet Union entered the tournament as favourites and were considered natural rivals with the American team due to the Cold War. The Americans, coached by Herb Brooks and consisting mainly of college students, tied Sweden and scored an upset win over Czechoslovakia in the preliminary round. They advanced to the medal round along with Sweden, Finland and the Soviet Union.
The February 22 medal-round game between the Soviet Union and the United States became famously known as the "Miracle on Ice." The Soviets took a 2–1 lead, but the Americans tied the game with one second left in the first period. In the second period, Soviet goaltender Vladislav Tretiak was replaced by Vladimir Myshkin. The Soviets regained the lead early in the second period. However, the Americans kept the game close due to the goaltending of Jim Craig. In the third period, the Americans scored two goals, including the game winner by captain Mike Eruzione with exactly 10 minutes left to give the Americans a 4–3 lead. Craig withstood another series of Soviet shots to preserve the win. In the final seconds of the game, American Broadcasting Company sportscaster Al Michaels delivered his famous line: "Do you believe in miracles? Yes!"
The final rankings were based on points accumulated in matches against the other teams in the medal round. Despite the common misconception that the Americans won gold the night they beat the Soviets, this did not occur until February 24 when they defeated Finland 4–2 and finished the tournament undefeated. The Soviets finished with silver; Sweden won the bronze. In 2008, the IIHF picked the Miracle on Ice as the top international hockey story of the past 100 years.
At the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union won its sixth gold medal. Czechoslovakia and Sweden won the silver and bronze medals. The 1988 Winter Olympics were held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, where the Soviet team captured its seventh and final gold medal. The Soviets' last Olympic game was a loss to Finland. The Finnish team was not considered a serious medal contender—it had competed in the World Championships since 1939 and had not won a single medal. However, Finland upset the Soviets 2–1 and won silver. The IIHF decided to change the tournament format because in several cases, the gold medal winner had been decided before the final day of play. During a congress in 1990, the IIHF introduced a playoff system. The new system was used at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France. Preliminary round-robin games were held and followed by an eight-team cup-system style medal round that culminated in a gold medal game.
Before 1989, players who lived in the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and other nations behind the Iron Curtain were not allowed to leave and play in the NHL. Soviet officials agreed to allow players to leave following the 1989 World Championships. Many of the Soviet Union's top players left to play in the NHL, including the entire "Green Unit"—Igor Larionov, Viacheslav Fetisov, Vladimir Krutov, Sergei Makarov and Alexei Kasatonov. The Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991. Nine former Soviet states became part of the IIHF and started competing internationally, including Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Ukraine. At the 1992 Olympics, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan competed as one entity, known as the Unified Team. In the final, the Unified Team defeated Canada to win gold while Czechoslovakia won the bronze.
Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in January 1993. The IIHF recognized the Czech Republic as the successor to Czechoslovakia, allowing the team to retain its position in the top World Championship division, while Slovakia started in the lowest division (Pool C) in 1994 and was forced to work its way up. Both nations competed in the tournament at the 1994 Winter Olympics, as did Russia. Slovakia and Finland both finished the preliminary round undefeated. Slovakia lost their medal round quarter-final game to Russia, who later lost to Finland in the bronze medal game. In the gold medal game between Sweden and Canada, both teams finished regulation and overtime play with a 2–2 tie. In the resulting shootout, the first in Olympic competition, both nations scored two goals, which resulted in a sudden death shootout. Peter Forsberg of Sweden scored one of the most famous goals in Olympic history by faking a forehand shot, then sliding a one-handed backhand shot past goaltender Corey Hirsch. Canada's final shooter Paul Kariya's shot was saved by Tommy Salo and Sweden won the game and its first gold medal.
In 1995, an agreement to allow NHL players to participate in Olympics was reached between the IOC, IIHF, NHL, and National Hockey League Players' Association (NHLPA). The format of the 1998 tournament was adjusted to accommodate the NHL's schedule. On February 7, a preliminary round without NHL players or the "Big Six" teams (Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States) began. The NHL had games on that day, but then halted play for the next 17 days to allow participating players to fly to Japan and recover from fatigue. The tournament format drew criticism for not allowing all teams the full use of their NHL players during the entire event. The top six teams were given a bye to the final round and began play on February 13. Canada, considered a pre-tournament favourite, was upset in the semi-final round by the Czech Republic and then lost the bronze medal game to Finland. Led by goaltender Dominik Hašek, the Czech team defeated Russia, who defeated them previously in the round robin, winning its first gold medal in the sport. During the tournament, Pavel Bure set an Olympic Record for Goals in a Game with 5 against Finland in the Semifinals. Swedish player Ulf Samuelsson was discovered to have applied for American citizenship. Under Swedish law at the time, when one acquires a foreign passport, their citizenship is annulled. Samuelsson was ejected after having played the first game against Belarus, although Sweden kept their points from the win. The Czech National Olympic Committee felt that Sweden should lose the points and filed a protest with the Court of Arbitration for Sport, which was rejected. Following the tournament, NHL commissioner Gary Bettman commented that it "was what we had predicted and hoped for from a pure hockey perspective, [it was] a wonderful tournament".
The same tournament format was used at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, United States. The NHL's Olympic break did not start until the second week of the Games. Because the Olympics were in the United States, where the majority of NHL teams are located, teams participating in the preliminary tournament were allowed to use NHL players who were not obligated to play with their NHL club. Slovakia was particularly affected by the inability to use all of its NHL players, and the team failed to advance to the final round. Three months later, Slovakia won gold at the 2002 World Championships. Finnish centre Raimo Helminen became the first ice hockey player to compete in six tournaments. In the quarter-finals, Belarus defeated Sweden in one of the biggest upsets since the Miracle on Ice. The team advanced to the bronze medal game, but lost to Russia. The Canadian team rebounded from a disappointing first round and defeated the American team in the gold medal game, winning their first gold medal in 50 years.
The tournament format was adjusted for 2006. The NHL went on hiatus for the duration of the games, allowing all players to compete. The number of teams was lowered to 12; the top six teams did not get a bye and played five preliminary round games. Sweden won the gold medal over Finland and the Czech Republic won the bronze medal. Three months later, Sweden won the 2006 World Championships and became the first team to win the Olympic and World Championship gold in the same year.
The 2010 Winter Olympics were held in Vancouver, Canada, the first time since NHL players were allowed to compete that the Olympics were held in a city with an NHL team. For the first time, Olympic games were played on a narrower NHL-sized ice rink, measuring 61 metres × 26 metres (200 ft × 85 ft), instead of the international size of 61 m × 30.5 m (200 ft × 100 ft). This change saved an expected $10 million (CAD) in construction costs and allowed more spectators to attend games. Games were played at the UBC Winter Sports Centre and Rogers Arena (then GM Place at the time), which was renamed Canada Hockey Place during the event because corporate sponsorship is not allowed for an Olympic venue. Twelve teams qualified for the men's event and were split into three groups of four teams. At the NHL's request, the number of preliminary games was lowered to three. Following the completion of the preliminary round, all teams were ranked 1 through 12 based on points. The top four ranked teams received byes to the quarter-finals, and the other eight teams played for the remaining four positions. Following that, the final eight teams competed in a playoff.
Teemu Selänne of Finland scored his 37th point, breaking the record of 36 first set by Canadian Harry Watson in 1924 and later tied by Vlastimil Bubník of Czechoslovakia, and Valeri Kharlamov of the Soviet Union. Slovakia made the final four for the first time, but lost the bronze medal game to Finland. In the gold medal game, Canada and the United States ended regulation play with a 2–2 tie, making it only the second Olympic gold medal match to go into overtime. Canadian player Sidney Crosby scored the winning goal 7:40 into overtime play to give Canada its eighth gold medal in men's hockey.
The 2014 Winter Olympics were held in Sochi, Russia, and retained the same game format used in Vancouver 2010, while returning to the larger international-sized ice rinks. Slovenia participated for the first time, upsetting Slovakia in the round robin before losing to Sweden in the quarterfinals, for its best finish in any international tournament. Latvia upset Switzerland in the qualification playoffs, also making it to the Olympic quarterfinals for the first time, where they were narrowly defeated by Canada. Host nation Russia, considered a pre-tournament favourite, lost 3–1 in the quarterfinals to Finland and finished 5th. Entering the semi-finals undefeated after outscoring opponents 20–6, the United States lost to Canada 1–0, then lost the bronze medal game against Finland 5–0. Teemu Selänne scored six more points in the tournament, was named tournament MVP and boosted his modern-era Olympic career record for points to 43 (24 goals, 19 assists). At the age of 43, he also set records as both the oldest Olympic goal-scorer and oldest Olympic ice hockey medal winner. Canada defeated Sweden 3–0 to win its ninth Olympic gold medal. The team did not trail at any point over the course of the tournament, and became the first back-to-back gold medal winner since the start of NHL participation in 1998, as well as the first team to go undefeated since 1984.
Addition to the programme
At the 99th IOC Session in July 1992, the IOC voted to approve women's hockey as an Olympic event beginning with the 1998 Winter Olympics as part of their effort to increase the number of female athletes at the Olympics. Women's hockey had not been in the programme when Nagano, Japan had won the right to host the Olympics, and the decision required approval by the Nagano Winter Olympic Organizing Committee (NAOOC). The NAOOC was initially hesitant to include the event because of the additional costs of staging the tournament and because they felt their team, which had failed to qualify for that year's World Championships, could not be competitive. According to Glynis Peters, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association's (CAHA) head of female hockey, "the Japanese would have to finance an entirely new sports operation to bring their team up to Olympic standards in six years, which they were also really reluctant to do." In November 1992, the NWOOC and IOC Coordination Committee reached an agreement to include a women's ice hockey tournament in the programme. Part of the agreement was that the tournament would be limited to six teams, and no additional facilities would be built. The CAHA also agreed to help build and train the Japanese team so that it could be more competitive. The IOC had agreed that if the NAOOC had not approved the event, it would be held at the 2002 Winter Olympics. The format of the first tournament was similar to the men's: preliminary round-robin games followed by a medal round playoff.
Before 1998, women's hockey had been dominated by Canada. Canadian teams had won every World Championship up to that point; however, by 1997, the American team had improved and was evenly matched with Canada. In thirteen games played between the two teams in 1997, Canada won seven and the United States won six. The 1998 Olympic tournament also included teams from Finland, Sweden, China and host Japan. Canada and the United States dominated the round-robin portion. In their head-to-head match, the United States overcame a 4–1 deficit to win 7–4. The two teams met in the final, which the United States won 3–1 to become the third ice hockey team to win Olympic gold.
For the 2002 Winter Olympics, the number of teams was increased to eight and Russia, Germany and Kazakhstan qualified for the first time. The Canadian and American teams went undefeated in the first round and semi-finals, setting up a gold medal rematch that the Canadian team won 3–2. Following the game, members of the Canadian team accused the Americans of stomping on a Canadian flag in their dressing room, although an investigation later proved the rumour false. The Swedish team won the bronze medal over Finland, the nation's first in women's ice hockey.
In 2006, Italy and Switzerland participated for the first time. The Italian team, at the time ranked 17th in the world, had qualified because Italy was the host nation. They were outscored 32–1 in three games and IIHF president René Fasel declared his intention to make future tournaments more competitive and not allow host nations to automatically qualify. The Canadian team started the tournament by outscoring opponents 36–1 over three games. American defenceman Angela Ruggiero accused the team of running up the score and warned that the event's Olympic status could be called into question due to a perceived lack of competitive teams. In response, René Fasel stated that other women's teams were improving and that there was similar dominance in the early years of the men's tournament but the sport continued to grow. He added, "I promise you that it won't take the [Swedish] women 64 years to win"—in reference to the Swedish men's team inability to defeat Canada in Olympic play until 1984 (the Swedish women's team defeated Canada for the first time at the 2008 4 Nations Cup).
In its semi-final game, the American team was upset by Sweden, marking the first time that it had lost to an opponent other than Canada. The upset drew comparisons to the Miracle on Ice from 1980. In the medal games, Canada defeated Sweden to claim its second consecutive gold medal, while the Americans beat Finland to win the bronze.
In 2010, eight teams participated, including Slovakia for the first time. The Canadian and American teams outscored opponents in the preliminary round by 41–2 and 31–1 margins, respectively. This brought on more criticism about uneven competition. IOC president Jacques Rogge said, "There is a discrepancy there, everyone agrees with that. This is maybe the investment period in women's ice hockey. I would personally give them more time to grow but there must be a period of improvement. We cannot continue without improvement." Swedish team coach Peter Elander said it is hard for other nations to compete because of a lack of funding and a smaller pool of players to choose from. He said, "The finances for all teams have to be the same. ... If you want to have a close tournament in Sochi (for the 2014 Olympics), have (comparable) national programs in all countries." Some critics suggested that a mercy rule be implemented to prevent such lopsided scores. René Fasel said the IIHF would consider adding one. Chinese team coach Hannu Saintula, whose team was defeated 12–1 by the Americans, and American coach Mark Johnson, did not favor the idea.
At the 2014 Winter Olympics, Canada defeated the United States 3-2, as Marie-Philip Poulin scored at 8:10 of overtime to win their fourth consecutive gold, rebounding from a two-goal deficit. With the win, Canadians Hayley Wickenheiser, Jayna Hefford and Caroline Ouellette became the first athletes to win four ice hockey gold medals. They also joined Soviet biathlete Alexander Tikhonov and German speedskater Claudia Pechstein as the only athletes to win gold medals in four straight Winter Olympics. In the bronze medal game Switzerland beat Sweden 4–3 to win their first women's medal.
Since 1976, 12 teams have participated in the men's tournament, except in 1998 and 2002, when the number was raised to 14. The number of teams has ranged from 4 (in 1932) to 16 (in 1964). After the NHL allowed its players to compete at the 1998 Winter Olympics, the "Big Six" teams (Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States) were given automatic qualification and byes to the final round. The number of teams was increased to 14 so that a preliminary round-robin tournament consisting of eight teams could be held. The top two teams from the preliminary round (Belarus and Kazakhstan) joined the "Big Six" in the finals. A similar system was used in 2002. For the following tournament, the number of teams was lowered to 12 so that all teams played fewer games. Qualification for the men's tournament at the 2010 Winter Olympics was structured around the 2008 IIHF World Ranking. Twelve spots were made available for teams. The top nine teams in the World Ranking after the 2008 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships received automatic berths. Teams ranked 19th through 30th played in a first qualification round in November 2008. The top three teams from the round advanced to the second qualification round, joined by teams ranked 10th through 18th. The top three teams from this round advanced to the Olympic tournament.
The women's tournament uses a similar qualification format. The top six teams in the IIHF Women's World Ranking after the 2008 Women's World Ice Hockey Championships received automatic berths. Teams ranked 13th and below were divided into two groups for a first qualification round in September 2008. The two group winners advanced to the second qualification round, where the teams ranked seventh through twelfth joined them.
The IIHF lists the following requirements for a player to be eligible to play in international tournaments:
- "Each player must be under the jurisdiction of an IIHF member national association."
- "Each player must be a citizen of the country he/she represents."
If a player who has never played in an IIHF competition changes their citizenship, they must participate in national competitions in their new country for at least two consecutive years and have an international transfer card (ITC). If a player who has previously played in an IIHF tournament wishes to change their national team, they must have played in their new country for four years. A player can only do this once. The original IOC rules stated that an athlete that had already played for one nation could not later change nations under any circumstances.
Use of professional players
Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the IOC, was influenced by the ethos of the aristocracy as exemplified in the English public schools. The public schools subscribed to the belief that sport formed an important part of education and there was a prevailing concept of fairness in which practicing or training was considered cheating. As class structure evolved through the 20th century, the definition of the amateur athlete as an aristocratic gentleman became outdated. The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage. The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis. Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism.
Near the end of the 1960s, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams. They pushed for the ability to use players from professional leagues but met opposition from the IIHF and IOC. Avery Brundage, president of the IOC from 1952 to 1972, was opposed to the idea of amateur and professional players competing together. At the IIHF Congress in 1969, the IIHF decided to allow Canada to use nine non-NHL professional hockey players at the 1970 World Championships in Montreal and Winnipeg, Canada. The decision was reversed in January 1970 after Brundage said that ice hockey's status as an Olympic sport would be in jeopardy if the change was made. In response, Canada withdrew from international ice hockey competition and officials stated that they would not return until "open competition" was instituted. Günther Sabetzki became president of the IIHF in 1975 and helped to resolve the dispute with the CAHA. In 1976, the IIHF agreed to allow "open competition" between all players in the World Championships. However, NHL players were still not allowed to play in the Olympics, because of the unwillingness of the NHL to take a break mid-season and the IOC's amateur-only policy.
Before the 1984 Winter Olympics, a dispute formed over what made a player a professional. The IOC had adopted a rule that made any player who had signed an NHL contract but played less than ten games in the league eligible. However, the United States Olympic Committee maintained that any player contracted with an NHL team was a professional and therefore not eligible to play. The IOC held an emergency meeting that ruled NHL-contracted players were eligible, as long as they had not played in any NHL games. This made five players on Olympic rosters—one Austrian, two Italians and two Canadians—ineligible. Players who had played in other professional leagues—such as the World Hockey Association—were allowed to play. Canadian hockey official Alan Eagleson stated that the rule was only applied to the NHL and that professionally contracted players in European leagues were still considered amateurs. Murray Costello of the CAHA suggested that a Canadian withdrawal was possible. In 1986, the IOC voted to allow all athletes to compete in Olympic Games starting in 1988, but let the individual sport federations decide if they wanted to allow professionals.
The NHL decided not to allow all players to participate in 1988, 1992 or 1994 because the Winter Olympics typically occur in February, during the league's regular season. To allow participation, the NHL would have been forced to take a break in its schedule.
In 1992, National Basketball Association (NBA) players participated in the 1992 Summer Olympics. The American "Dream Team" dominated the tournament, and NHL commissioner Gary Bettman (an NBA executive in 1992) commented that the "[NBA]'s worldwide awareness grew dramatically". He hoped that NHL participation would "get exposure like the world has never seen for hockey". The typical NBA season is held in the winter and spring, so the Summer Olympics do not conflict with the regular season schedule. Bettman "floated a concept of moving hockey to the Summer Games", but this was rejected because of the Olympic Charter. In March 1995, Bettman, René Fasel, IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch and NHLPA executive director Bob Goodenow met in Geneva, Switzerland. They reached an agreement that allowed NHL players to participate in the Olympics, starting with the 1998 Games in Nagano, Japan. The deal was officially announced by the NHL on October 2, 1995. Bettman said: "We're doing this to build the game of hockey, pure and simple, we think whatever benefits are recouped, it will end up making this game bigger, stronger and healthier."
The 2004–05 NHL season was locked out and eventually cancelled because of a labour dispute between the league and its players. In January 2005, Bettman commented that he was hesitant to allow league participation in the Olympics because he did not like the idea of stopping play mid-season after the cancellation of the previous season. The lockout was resolved in July 2005 and the newly negotiated NHL Collective Bargaining Agreement allowed league participation in the 2006 and 2010 Winter Olympics. Some NHL team owners were against their players participating in the tournament because of concerns about injury or exhaustion. Philadelphia Flyers owner Ed Snider commented that "I'm a believer in the Olympics and I think it's good for the NHL to participate, having said that, the people who participate should be the ones who are absolutely healthy." Some NHL players used the break as an opportunity to rest and did not participate in the tournament, and several players were injured during the Olympics and were forced to miss NHL games. Bettman said that several format changes were being discussed so that the tournament would be "a little easier for everybody".
It was originally thought that for NHL participating in the 2014 Winter Olympics a deal would have to be negotiated between the NHL and NHLPA in the Collective Bargaining Agreement. In January 2013, the NHL and NHLPA agreed on a new Collective Bargaining Agreement. However, the decision on NHL participation at the Olympics was later announced on 19 July 2013. As part of the deal, the NHL will go on break for 17 days during the Olympics and will send 13 on-ice officials to help with the Games. NHL management was hesitant to commit to the tournament; Bettman argued the Olympic break is a "strain on the players, on the schedule and on fans", adding that "the benefits we get tend to be greater when the Olympics are in North America than when they're in distant time zones." According to Bettman, most of the NHL team owners agree with his position, and feel that the league does not receive enough benefits to justify the schedule break and risk of player injuries. René Fasel wants NHL participation and vowed that he would "work day and night to have NHL players in Sochi". At an October 2008 press conference, then-NHLPA executive director Paul Kelly stated that the players want to return to the Olympics and would try to include the ability in the next agreement. Russian NHL players Alexander Ovechkin and Evgeni Malkin stated that they wanted to participate in the tournament and would do so without the permission of the NHL, if necessary. Paul Kelly also believed that the NHL's strained relationship with the Ice Hockey Federation of Russia and the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) could affect participation. In a 2009 interview, KHL president Alexander Medvedev claimed that the unwillingness of NHL officials to immediately commit to the Sochi Games was "an instrument of pressure" to force a transfer agreement between the two leagues. As part of the agreement for the 2014 Games, the International Olympic Committee had to pay around $8 million to insure NHLers playing in Sochi, a price tag that was a major sticking point during negotiations with the NHL, NHLPA, and IIHF, making this a one-time deal that may make participating in the 2018 Games unlikely. 
At the first tournament in 1920, there were many differences from the modern game: games were played outdoors on natural ice, forward passes were not allowed, the rink (which had been intended to be used only for figure skating) was 56 m × 18 m (165 ft × 58.5 ft) and two 20-minute periods were played. Each team had seven players on the ice, the extra position being the rover. Following the tournament, the IIHF held a congress and decided to adopt the Canadian rules—six men per side and three periods of play.
The tournaments follow the rules used by the IIHF. At the 1969 IIHF Congress, officials voted to allow body-checking in all three zones in a rink similar to the NHL. Before that, body-checking was only allowed in the defending zone in international hockey. Several other rule changes were implemented in the early 1970s: players were required to wear helmets starting in 1970, and goaltender masks became mandatory in 1972. In 1992, the IIHF switched to using a playoff system to determine medalists and decided that tie games in the medal round would be decided in a shootout. In 1998, the IIHF passed a rule that allowed two-line passes. Before then, the neutral zone trap had slowed the game down and reduced scoring.
The current IIHF rules differ slightly from the rules used in the NHL. One difference between NHL and IIHF rules is standard rink dimensions: the NHL rink is narrower, measuring 61 m × 26 m (200 ft × 85 ft), instead of the international size of 61 m × 30.5 m (200 ft × 100 ft) The larger international size allows for a faster and less physical style of play. Another rule difference between the NHL and the IIHF rules concerns how icing is called. In the NHL, a linesman stops play due to icing if a defending player (other than the goaltender) is not behind an attacking player in the race to the end-zone faceoff dots in his defensive zone, in contrast to the IIHF rules in which play is stopped the moment the puck crosses the goal line. The NHL and IIHF also differ in penalty rules. The NHL calls five-minute major penalties for more dangerous infractions of the rules, such as fighting, in addition to the minor and double minor penalties called in IIHF games. This is in contrast to the IIHF rule, by which players who fight are ejected from the game. Beginning with the 2005–06 season, the NHL instituted several new rules. Some were already used by the IIHF, such as the shootout and the two-line pass. Others were not picked up by the IIHF, such as those requiring smaller goaltender equipment and the addition of the goaltender trapezoid to the rink. However, the IIHF did agree to follow the NHL's zero-tolerance policy on obstruction and required referees to call more hooking, holding, and interference penalties.
One of the conditions of the NHL's participation in the Olympics is to include regular NHL referees and linesmen in the tournament, despite the fact that they are American or Canadian, and thus gives the perception of American or Canadian bias in the officiating.
|1998 Nagano||United States||Canada||Finland|
|2002 Salt Lake City||Canada||United States||Sweden|
|2006 Turin||Canada||Sweden||United States|
|2010 Vancouver||Canada||United States||Finland|
|2014 Sochi||Canada||United States||Switzerland|
- "Ice hockey". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/uk/sports/programme/index_uk.asp?SportCode=IH. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Farrell, Arthur (1899). Hockey: Canada's Royal Winter Game. C.R. Corneil, 27.
- "It all started in Paris, 1908". International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/iihf-home/history/the-iihf.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Daily Telegraph, 1908-05-21
- Morales 2004, p. 275
- Podnieks 1997, pp. 1–10
- "International hockey timeline". International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/iihf-home/history/the-iihf/timeline.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "Chamonix 1924". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/past/index_uk.asp?OLGT=2&OLGY=1924. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
- "This Day in History 1924: First Winter Olympics". This day in History. A&E Television Networks. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=6787. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
- "Sport: Winter Olympics 98–History of the winter Olympics", BBC News, 1998-02-05. Retrieved on 2009-04-06.
- "1920 – Summer Olympics VII (Antwerp, Belgium)". The Sports Network. http://www.tsn.ca/olympics/feature/?fid=9346. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "United States is second at hockey; Victory Over Czechoslovak Team by 16 to 0 Gives Americans 3 Points in Olympics.", The New York Times, 1920-04-29. Retrieved on 2009-03-01.
- "1924 – Winter Olympics I (Chamonix, France)". The Sports Network. http://www.tsn.ca/olympics/feature/?fid=10263. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #53–Harry Watson scores at will in Olympics.
- "Ice Hockey at the 1924 Chamonix Winter Games: Men's Ice Hockey". sports-reference.com. http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/1924/ICH/mens-ice-hockey.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "Selanne's 37th point tops Games mark", ESPN, 2010-02-20. Retrieved on 2010-09-24.
- "1928 – Winter Olympics II (St. Moritz, Switzerland)". The Sports Network. http://www.tsn.ca/olympics/feature/?fid=10264. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Comité Olympique Suisse (1928). Rapport Général du Comité Exécutif des IImes Jeux Olympiques d'hiver (PDF) (in French), Lausanne: Imprimerie du Léman. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
- "1932 – Winter Olympics III (Lake Placid, United States)". The Sports Network. http://www.tsn.ca/olympics/feature/?fid=10265. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- (1932) in Lattimer, George: Official Report III Olympic Winter Games Lake Placid 1932 (PDF), Lake Placid, New York: Olympic Winter Games Committee, 70–72, 270. Retrieved on 2009-04-17.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #15–Great Britain wins Olympic gold.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #82–USA sends two teams to the 1948 Olympics.
- "Ice Hockey at the 1948 Sankt Moritz Winter Games: Men's Ice Hockey". sports-reference.com. http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/1948/ICH/mens-ice-hockey.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Podnieks 1997, pp. 53–66
- Comité Olympique Suisse (January 1951). Rapport Général sur les Ves Jeux Olympiques d'hiver St-Moritz 1948 (PDF) (in French), Lausanne: H. Jaunin, 69. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- "Past medalists–IIHF World Championships". International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/iihf-home/history/all-medallists/men.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "1952 – Winter Olympics VI (Oslo, Norway)". The Sports Network. http://www.tsn.ca/olympics/feature/?fid=10270. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "Finland Ice Hockey: Men's Ice Hockey". sports-reference.com. http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/countries/FIN/winter/ICH/mens-ice-hockey.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #25–Soviet Union win their first Olympics, starting a new hockey era.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #16–USA's original but unheralded "Miracle on Ice".
- "1964 – Winter Olympics IX (Innsbruck, Austria)". The Sports Network. http://www.tsn.ca/olympics/feature/?fid=10273. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "'64 Team Canada gets bronze medals". The Sports Network. 2005-04-30. http://www.tsn.ca/canadian_hockey/story/?id=123399&lid=sublink05&lpos=topStory_canadian_hockey. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- "1964 Canadian Olympic hockey team to be honoured", CBC Sports, 2005-04-29.
- "IIHF denies Canada 1964 bronze". The Sports Network. 2005-06-05. http://www.tsn.ca/canadian_hockey/story/?id=127513. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- (1969) Xth Winter Olympic Games Official Report (PDF), Comité d'Organisation des xèmes Jeux Olympiques d'Hiver de Grenoble, 386. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #67–The perfect game against the best team: Czechoslovaks–Soviets 7–2.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #97–B Pool Americans win Olympic silver in 1972.
- (1973) The Official Report of XIth Winter Olympic Games, Sapporo 1972 (PDF), The Organizing Committee for the Sapporo Olympic Winter Games, 228–229. Retrieved on 2009-04-06.
- in Neumann, Bertl: XII. Olympische Winterspiele Innsbruck 1976 Final Report (PDF), Organizing Committee for the XIIth Winter Olympic Games 1976 at Innsbruck, 163. Retrieved on 2009-04-06.
- Podnieks 1997, p. 130
- Roberts, Selena. "Olympics: Opening ceremony; Pomp and Patriotism as Games Begin", The New York Times, 2002-02-09. Retrieved on 2009-03-02.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #1–Miracle on Ice.
- Judd 2008, pp. 110–111
- (1984) Official Report of the Organising Committee of the XlVth Winter Olympic Games 1984 at Sarajevo (PDF), Sarajevo: Oslobodenje, 88. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #95–1988 Olympic silver – Finland is finally a true hockey power.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #89–Finally, there's a real final game, The IIHF adopts a playoff system.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #58–Raimo Helminen, 38, dresses for a sixth Olympics.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #65–Igor Larionov openly revolts against coach, system.
- Duhatschek, Eric. "GMs figure Soviets one day will flood market", 1989-06-18, p. E4.
- (2002-09-27) Sweeping Changes. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved on 2009-03-23.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #42–Breakup of old Europe creates a new hockey world.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #59–Team with no name wins Olympic gold.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #77–Recently separated, Czechs and Slovaks meet in World Championships final.
- Judd 2008, p. 121
- O'Connor, Joe (2009-02-28). "Owning the moment". National Post. International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/channels10/olympics-2010/news/news-singleview-world-championship-2009/browse/17/article/owning-the-moment.html?tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=3468&cHash=f66b6ba77f. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
- Howard, Johnette. "Sweden Wins on Forsberg's Shot in Shootout", The Washington Post, 1994-02-28. Retrieved on 2009-03-04.
- Simmons, Steve (2006). "Medal for Mats". Toronto Sun. http://slam.canoe.ca/Slam/Olympics/2006Turin/Hockey/2006/02/25/1462081-sun.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #14–"Foppa" – The goal, the stamp & Sweden's first Olympic gold.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #7–NHL takes break and releases players for 1998 Olympics.
- Garrioch, Bruce (2002-02-12). "Blame must be shared for Slovakia's collapse". Slam! Olympics. Canadian Online Explorer. http://slam.canoe.ca/2002GamesHockeyFeb02/0212_bla-sun.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #12–Hasek thwarts all five Canadian gunners in epic shootout.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #10–Czech Republic wins first "open" Olympics.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #72–Reporter's scoop reveals that Samuelsson is not a Swede in Nagano-98.
- Lapointe, Joe. "Olympics: Hockey; N.H.L. and Its Teams Send Players to Bench", The New York Time], 2002-02-11. Retrieved on 2009-03-01.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #22–Bondra's bomb – the biggest thing for Slovakia since independence.
- "Belarus pull off huge upset", BBC, 2002-02-21. Retrieved on 2009-03-04.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #28–Vladimir Kopat bounces Sweden from the 2002 Olympics.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #11–Canada wins Olympic gold for first time in 50 years.
- Jones, Terry (2006-02-03). "Five games to go". Edmonton Sun. Canadian Online Explorer. http://slam.canoe.ca/Slam/Olympics/2006Turin/Columnists/Jones/2006/02/03/1424759-sun.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "Ice Hockey at the 2006 Torino Winter Games: Men's Ice Hockey". sports-reference.com. http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/2006/ICH/mens-ice-hockey.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #8–Sweden's unique double, Olympics & Worlds.
- "VANOC shrinks Olympic ice". The Vancouver Sun. Canadian Online Explorer. 2009-02-24. http://slam.canoe.ca/Slam/Olympics/2010Vancouver/2006/06/08/1620669-sun.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "Venues–UBC Thunderbird Arena". Vancouver Organizing Committee. http://www.vancouver2010.com/en/competition-schedules-and-venues/venues/-/41126/32528/1bf5d78/ubc-thunderbird-arena.html. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
- "GM Place to get new name for 2010". CTV News. 2008. http://www.ctvbc.ctv.ca/servlet/an/plocal/CTVNews/20080806/BC_GM_place_new_name_080806/20080806/?hub=BritishColumbiaHome. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- "Venues–UBC Thunderbird Arena". Vancouver Organizing Committee. http://www.vancouver2010.com/ubc-thunderbird-arena/. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- "Men's Tournament Program". International Ice Hockey Federation. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. https://web.archive.org/20090328191716/http://www.iihf.com:80/home-of-hockey/championships/olympics/olympics-men/tournament-program.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- "Men's tournament programme & schedules". International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/home-of-hockey/championships/olympics/olympics-men.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- "Finland defeats Slovakia to capture hockey bronze", The Sports Network, 2010-02-28. Retrieved on 2010-09-24.
- Byers, Jim. "Canada beats U.S. in OT for hockey gold", Toronto Star, 2010-02-28. Retrieved on 2010-02-28.
- "Tournament Format". Retrieved on 2014-02-22.
- Martin Merk. "[backPid=244&cHash=d57bc8bcc9/ Looking for history]", 2014-02-18. Retrieved on 2014-02-22.
- ROY MACGREGOR. "Ted Nolan has Latvian players believing in themselves", 2014-02-19. Retrieved on 2014-02-22.
- Rod Perry. "Russians dejected after Olympic hockey loss to Finland", 2014-02-19. Retrieved on 2014-02-22.
- Lucas Aykroyd. "Fine Finnish for Selanne", 2014-02-22. Retrieved on 2014-02-22.
- The Canadian Press. "Canada defeats Sweden to defend Gold in Olympic Men's Hockey", The Sports Network, 2014-02-23. Retrieved on 2014-02-23.
- The Canadian Press. "Wickenheiser signs with Swedish men's club", CBC Sports, 2008-07-22. Retrieved on 2009-03-01.
- The Canadian Press. "Canadians cheer new Olympic sports", Waterloo Region Record, 1992-07-27.
- "An Agreement By Nagano Games", The New York Times, 1992-11-29. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- Ormsby, Mary. "Women 's hockey gets approval for '98", Toronto Star, 1992-11-18.
- "Ice Hockey at the 2006 Torino Winter Games: Women's Ice Hockey". sports-reference.com. http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/winter/2006/ICH/womens-ice-hockey.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- "Women's Hockey History". CBC Sports. http://www.fieldday.com/cbc/olympics/sports/hockey/womens-history/index.html. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #33–Women's hockey enters Olympics—USA hands Canada first loss.
- Crosse, Simon. "The big two dominate", BBC Sport, 2002-02-24. Retrieved on 2009-04-06.
- "Changes coming to avoid women's hockey blowouts". CTV Sports. 2006-02-17. http://toronto.ctv.ca/servlet/an/plocal/CTVNews/20060217/hockey_changes_060217/20060217/?hub=TorontoHome. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- "Fasel vows to fix women's hockey", CBC Sports, 2006-02-17. Retrieved on 2006-02-17.
- "Canada should tone it down: Ruggiero", CBC Sports, 2006-02-13. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- "Cherry warns women's hockey squad", CBC Sports, 2006-02-16. Retrieved on 2009-03-02.
- Eligon, John. "Trying to Avoid the Ill Fate of Softball", The New York Times, 2006-02-17. Retrieved on 2009-03-02.
- Allen, Kevin. "Canada, U.S. set the bar in women's hockey", USA Today, 2006-02-13. Retrieved on 2009-04-07.
- Spencer, Donna. "Sweden upsets Canada at Four Nations Cup", Toronto Star, 2008-11-07. Retrieved on 2009-04-07.
- Judd, Ron. "Miracle whipped: A stunning changing of the guard in women's hockey", The Seattle Times, 2006-02-18. Retrieved on 2009-03-02.
- Crouse, Karen. "Competition Catches Up to U.S. Women", The New York Times, 2006-02-18. Retrieved on 2009-03-02.
- "Best women's team ever?", CBC Sports, 2006-02-23. Retrieved on 2009-03-01.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #35–Swedish "Mirakel" as USA bumped from Olympic gold-medal game.
- "Women's Tournament Schedule Proposal". International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/home-of-hockey/championships/olympics/olympics-women.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- "Canada brings home Olympic gold in women's hockey". Vancouver Sun. 2010-02-25. http://www.vancouversun.com/sports/Canada+brings+home+Olympic+gold+women+hockey/2613857/story.html. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- Korn, Allison (2010-02-25). "Women's hockey no joke". Toronto Sun. http://www.torontosun.com/sports/vancouver2010/hockey/2010/02/25/13026741.html. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- Lee, Jeff (2010-02-25). "Women's hockey must improve or else: IOC's Jacques Rogge". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 2010-03-01. https://web.archive.org/web/20100301164021/http://www.vancouversun.com/sports/2010wintergames/Women+hockey+must+improve+else+Jacques+Rogge/2612741/story.html. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- Bell, Gregg. "Medal-round coaches defend women's hockey", Chattanooga Times Free Press, 2010-02-26. Retrieved on 2010-09-24.
- Cowan, Stu (2010-02-20). "Blowouts not good for women's hockey". Ottawa Citizen. http://www.ottawacitizen.com/sports/Blowouts+good+women+hockey/2592132/story.html. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
- "Mercy rule possible for women's hockey: IIHF", CBC Sports, 2010-02-18. Retrieved on 2010-02-25.
- Livingstone, Seth (2010-02-14). "Women's hockey scores lopsided, but no one wants a mercy rule". USA Today. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/vancouver/hockey/2010-02-14-lopsided-scores_N.htm. Retrieved 2014-12-11.
- "Poulin scores OT winner, Canada wins gold over U.S.". The Sports Network. 2014-02-20. http://www.tsn.ca/canadian_hockey/story/?id=444282. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Swiss women rally to beat Sweden for hockey bronze". The Sports Network. 2014-02-20. http://www.tsn.ca/olympics/story/?id=444276. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Germany, Norway round out 2010 Olympic men's hockey". TSN. 2009-02-08. http://www.tsn.ca/nhl/story/?id=266366. Retrieved 2009-02-09.
- "Women's Tournament Program". International Ice Hockey Federation. Archived from the original on February 25, 2009. https://web.archive.org/20090225174514/http://www.iihf.com:80/home-of-hockey/championships/olympics/olympics-women/tournament-program.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- "IIHF Eligibility". International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/en/home-of-hockey/championships/iihf-eligibility.html. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
- Eassom, Simon (1994). Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology. Ontario: The Centre for Olympic Studies, 120–123. ISBN 0-7714-1697-0.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #17–Protesting amateur rules, Canada leaves international hockey.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #40–Finally, Canada to host the World Championship.
- "Summit Series '72 Summary", Hockey Hall of Fame. Retrieved on 2009-03-02.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #6–First Canada Cup opens up the hockey world.
- Podnieks 1997, pp. 147–158
- Litsky, Frank. "Eagleson upset over hockey dispute", The New York Times, 1984-01-25.
- "Canada considers hockey withdrawal", The New York Times, 1984-02-05.
- Monsebraaten, Laurie. "Players in NHL are now eligible in the Olympics", Toronto Star, 1986-10-15.
- "Amateurism", USA Today, 1999-07-12. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.
- Dryden, Ken. "Aiding U.S. Olympic Team May Bring Gold to N.H.L., Too", 1988-03-06. Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
- Lapointe, Joe. "The N.H.L.'s Olympic Gamble; Stars' Participation in Nagano Could Raise Sport's Profile", The New York Times, 1997-09-16. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
- Associated Press. "NHL makes peace with union and sets up Olympic 'Dream Tourney'", Rocky Mountain News, 1995-10-03.
- The Canadian Press (2005-01-03). "IIHF not giving up on NHLers in Turin". The Sports Network. http://www.tsn.ca/olympics/story/?id=109955&hubname=olympics. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
- LeBrun, Pierre (2005-07-22). "2010 Olympics needs to ratify deal IIHF". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Archived from the original on September 3, 2009. https://web.archive.org/20090903083451/http://slam.canoe.ca:80/Slam/Olympics/2010Vancouver/2005/07/22/1143772-cp.html. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
- Hornby, Lance (2006). "Some owners cool to Olympic flame". Toronto Sun. Canadian Online Explorer. http://slam.canoe.ca/Slam/Olympics/2006Turin/Hockey/2006/02/04/1426019-sun.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "Fasel angry at absent NHLers", CBC Sports, 2006-02-12. Retrieved on 2009-03-01.
- The Canadian Press (2006-02-24). "Hockey changes likely for 2010 games". The Sports Network. http://www.tsn.ca/nhl/story/?id=156076&hubname=nhl. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "To play or not to play". CTV Olympics. 2009-09-23. Archived from the original on September 26, 2009. https://web.archive.org/20090926031537/http://www.ctvolympics.ca:80/hockey/news/newsid=16174.html?cid=rsstsn. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Burnside, Scott (2008-09-28). "Kelly: As many as eight teams could open next season in Europe". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/nhl/news/story?id=3614334. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "NHL and NHLPA reach deal on Collective Bargaining Agreement". The Sports Network. 2013-01-06. http://www.tsn.ca/nhl/story/?id=412844. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "Deal reached to send NHL players to 2014 Winter Olympics". The Sports Network. 2013-07-19. http://www.tsn.ca/nhl/story/?id=427999. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
- "NHL may skip Olympics after 2010", CBC Sports, 2007-11-28. Retrieved on 2009-03-19.
- LeBrun, Pierre (2008-10-05). "Sens' owner convinced of European expansion, Bettman skeptical". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/nhl/news/story?id=3627230. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
- "Bettman and Fasel face off". CTV Olympics. 2009-03-27. Archived from the original on 2010-03-03. https://web.archive.org/web/20100303141350/http://www.ctvolympics.ca/hockey/news/newsid=7810.html#bettman+fasel+face. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
- Klein, Jeff Z.; Hackel, Stu. "K.H.L. Leader Chides N.H.L. On 2014 Games", The New York Times, 2009-02-14. Retrieved on 2009-03-19.
- Hansen, Kenth (May 1996). "The Birth of Swedish Ice Hockey – Antwerp 1920" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius (International Society of Olympic Historians) 4 (2): 5–27. http://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/JOH/JOHv4n2/JOHv4n2c.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #21–Ice Hockey debuts at the Olympics.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #19–IIHF allows bodychecking in all three zones.
- "All game-winning shot competitions ("shootouts")". International Ice Hockey Federation. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. https://web.archive.org/20090318020205/http://stats.iihf.com/archive/Overtimes.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #27–Dropping the red-line, allowing the two-line pass changes the Game.
- "IIHF Rule Book". International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/iihf-home/sport/iihf-rule-book.html. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
- "VANOC shrinks Olympic ice". The Vancouver Sun. Canadian Online Explorer. 2009-02-24. http://slam.canoe.ca/Slam/Olympics/2010Vancouver/2006/06/08/1620669-sun.html. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
- Judd 2008, p. 113
- Podnieks 1997, pp. 11–22
- National Hockey League (2014). "Hybrid icing tops list of rule changes for 2013-14". National Hockey League. http://www.nhl.com/ice/news.htm?id=684940. Retrieved 2014-02-09.
- National Hockey League (2005). "Major penalties". National Hockey League. http://www.nhl.com/rules/rule27.html. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
- "Ice Hockey Essentials – International vs. NHL". CBC Sports. 2009-12-04. http://www.cbc.ca/olympics/history/story/2009/11/26/spo-essentials-international-nhl-hockey.html. Retrieved 2012-02-24.
- Burnside, Scott (2005-07-25). "Rule changes geared toward entertainment". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/nhl/news/story?id=2114523. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- "Olympics vs. NHL: How the rules are different". ESPN. 2005-12-16. http://sports.espn.go.com/nhl/news/story?id=2261075. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
- Burnside, Scott (2005-12-14). "Tough test for Turin; cap on the brain". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/nhl/news/story?id=2256450. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
- Podnieks & Szemberg 2008, Story #31–Zebras told to crackdown—once and for all.
- "IIHF Eligibility". International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/home-of-hockey/championships/iihf-eligibility.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- "Forsberg livid Canadians will ref Olympic gold-medal game", Toronto Sun, 2014-02-22. Retrieved on 2014-02-22.
- "Russian hockey fans protest referee's controversial call outside U.S. Embassy", USA Today, 2014-02-17. Retrieved on 2014-02-22.
- IOC results database, Olympic.org
- Olympic Review and Revue Olympique, LA84Foundation.org
- Alternative Medal Table of the Olympic Hockey, hockey-history.com
- Reference book about all Olympic Medalists of all times, Olympicgameswinners.com
- International Ice Hockey Federation – Official website – Olympics, IIHF.com
|Ice hockey at the Olympic Games|
|1920 • 1924 • 1928 • 1932 • 1936 • 1948 • 1952 • 1956 • 1960 • 1964 • 1968 • 1972 • 1976 • 1980 • 1984 • 1988 • 1992 • 1994 • 1998 • 2002 • 2006 • 2010 • 2014|
|International Ice Hockey Federation|